Infectious Bursal Disease

Infectious bursal disease (IBD), also known as Gumboro disease, is an acute, highly contagious, immunosuppressive disease of young chicks worldwide. The disease is caused by the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), a type of birnavirus that primarily targets the lymph tissue in the bursa of Fabricius (cloacal bursa). The cloacal bursa plays a significant role in proper function of the chicken’s immune system.

Chickens are most susceptible to clinical disease when they are between 3 to 6 weeks of age. Chicks less than 3 weeks of age are still susceptible to becoming infected with the virus, but typically don’t demonstrate signs of illness. All chicks that are infected with the virus, regardless of whether they demonstrate clinical signs at the time of infection, have lasting impacts. The damage the virus causes to the cloacal bursa results in greater susceptibility to future infections, including normally nonpathogenic microbes.

Infectious bursal disease

When clinical disease occurs, in chicks 3-6 weeks old it is characterized as follows:

  • Has a sudden onset and rapidly runs through all flock members.
  • One of the first clinical signs is watery or whitish diarrhea that clings to the chick’s vent feathers (referred to as ‘pasty butt’). Sometimes blood is also present. Affected chicks are often seen picking at their own vents.
  • General, non-specific signs such as lethargy, depression, loss of appetite, reduced water intake, huddling, ruffled feathers, and reluctance to stand soon follow.
  • Diarrhea and reduced water intake leads to dehydration, soon followed by incoordination, trembling and weakness.
  • 20-30% of chicks will usually die within 3 days from when they first developed signs of illness.
  • Remaining flock members will usually undergo a rapid recovery 5-7 days later.

How Chickens get Infectious bursal disease

Infectious bursal disease is spread by direct and indirect contact with infected birds, often through exposure to feces. The virus is shed in the feces of infected chicks and can survive in the environment for several months.

Incubation period for Infectious bursal disease

The incubation period is very short, with clinical signs becoming apparent within 2-3 days following exposure to the virus.

Diagnosis of Infectious bursal disease

For live birds, the disease is diagnosed through serology, bursal histopathology or PCR testing. Necropsy results will often reveal bursae filled with pus or blood which are regarded as pathognomonic changes for this condition.

Treatment for Infectious bursal disease

Treatment consists of supportive care. Antibiotics may be indicated to help control secondary bacterial infections.

Clinical Signs

Reduced appetite
Ruffled feathers
Vent pecking behavior
Pasty butt
White, watery diarrhea



Supportive care Isolate the bird from the flock and place in a safe, comfortable, warm location (your own chicken “intensive care unit”) with easy access to water and food. Limit stress. Call your veterinarian.
Treatment of pasty butt When poop hardens it can cause a blockage to the chick’s gastrointestinal system, as if the poop has no way to leave the chick’s body, the chick will die.
Gather a warm wet facecloth, dry paper towels, and petroleum jelly (Vaseline).
Using the facecloth, gently run it over the hardened poop. The intent is to clean it off completely, but depending on how hard it is this may take repeated attempts and a little time. Once clean, gently dry off the chick’s bum with the dry paper towel and apply a small amount of petroleum jelly to the area that was sticky, to try to prevent fresh poop from sticking in the future. Repeatedly check on the chick, as this process is likely to need to be repeated.
Protocatechuic acid (PCA) 20 mg/kg for 5 days
Thymulin 5cH Diluted into drinking water Sato C et al., 2012
Calendula officinalis extract 0.5 ml added to feed daily for for 7 days S Marina et al; E Barbour et al

Pullet Management

Hy-Line commercial and parent-stock chicks adapt equally well to floor and cage-brooding systems. The chicks require no special hatchery services except vaccination against Marek’s disease. Nevertheless, a laying-hen flock has a major part of its potential performance determined during the first 17 to 20 weeks of its lifetime. Therefore, special attention should be paid to the growing period to assure that the hens reach the laying house ready to deliver her bred-in performance potential. Mistakes made in grow are very difficult, if not impossible, to correct in the laying house.

See also information for:
* Temperature and Relative Humidity
    * Ventilation

Pullet Management Check List

  • Grow pullets in strict isolation from older birds. Maintain good sanitation. Plan work routines so that disease-causing agents cannot be carried from older birds to the growing pullets.
  • During the first 6 weeks, operate feeders to provide feed at least twice daily. Starting at 2 to 3 weeks of age, check feed consumption and body weights against the body weight standards for the specific Hy-Line variety.
  • Weigh at least 100 pullets weekly during the growing period, beginning at 2 to 3 weeks of age.
  • Check water availability in each cage row daily. Check for and repair leaks. Raise waterers as the birds grow (nipples higher than the birds’ heads; cups or troughs level with their backs).
  • Plan and follow a vaccination schedule to fit the location. A local veterinarian or a Hy-Line representative can be of assistance in making recommendations. Remove mortality daily and dispose of properly. Examine for causes of excessive mortality.
  • Three days before moving pullets to the laying house, begin using water-soluble vitamins and electrolytes in the drinking water. Continue for 3 days after housing. This helps minimize the stress of moving. Handle birds gently during transfer to avoid injuries.
  • Pullets should be housed at 17 weeks of age, before the onset of sexual maturity.

Poultry farming in kenya-Infectious Coryza Disease in Chicken

Characteristics of infectious coryza in chicken

It is a usually acute, sometimes chronic, highly infectious disease of chickens, occasionally pheasants and guinea-fowl, characterised by catarrhal inflammation of the upper respiratory tract, especially nasal and sinus mucosae.

Causes and Transmission

Chronically ill or healthy carrier birds are the reservoir of infection. Chickens of all ages are susceptible, but susceptibility increases with age. The incubation period is 1–3 days, and the disease duration is usually 2–3 wk. Under field conditions, the duration may be longer in the presence of concurrent diseases.

Infected flocks are a constant threat to uninfected flocks. Transmission is by direct contact, airborne droplets, and contamination of drinking water. Management has essentially eradicated infectious coryza from many commercial poultry establishments. Commercial farms that have multiple-age flocks tend to perpetuate the disease. Egg transmission does not occur

Signs and sypmtoms

In acute cases, lesions may be limited to the infraorbital sinuses. There is a copious, tenacious, grayish, semifluid exudate. As the disease becomes chronic or other pathogens become involved, the sinus exudate may become consolidated and turn yellowish. Other lesions may include conjunctivitis, tracheitis, bronchitis, and airsacculitis, particularly if other pathogens are involved


Sulphonamides, tylosin, erythromycin. Flouroquinolones should be used as directed by the manufacturer.


Prevention is the most effective method of control. Farms with good vaccination and isolation methods are the best way to avoid infectious coryza. Infected birds should be separated and treated. Erythromycin and oxytetracycline are usually beneficial. sulfonamides, sulfonamide-trimethoprim, and other combinations have been successful.

How to defeat dreaded New Castle chicken disease

Many vets and farmers will never wish to encounter Newcastle Disease (NCD). In it is virulent form, the disease can silence the whole flock in just two weeks.

The disease is a global problem; only two countries — US and Canada have managed to put it at bay; although strictly speaking – they may not be free since the disease is also carried by migratory birds that know no border.Luckily the disease can be prevented through vaccination. Newcastle disease is an infectious viral disease of all birds – Turkeys, geese, ducks and parrots. But its severity differs across the species and immunity status.

The disease has a short incubation period sometimes as little as two days post exposure. For this deadly disease, prevention is the only cure. It comes in both mild and virulent forms; chicken and especially young chicks are most susceptible.

Wild birds like waterfowl and cormorants are NCD carriers for the domestic chicken. The domestic pigeon species, which many farmers keep together with the domestic chicken are also susceptible but not as much as chicken therefore adding to the number of potential sources to your unvaccinated flock.

Even in farms where vaccinations are done against the disease, many will not think of the domestic pigeons, ducks or the turkeys leaving a loose end in the control of NCD.

Sick or carrier birds will share the virus through exhaled aerosols, droppings and their carcasses, which can contaminate the environment – food, water, litter and other objects. In infected birds the virus can be carried in the eggs subsequently causing infections in chicks. Direct contact with infected birds and contaminated food, water and equipment will spread the disease.

This requires thorough disinfection of contaminated houses before introduction of another batch of birds. All-in-All-out management of birds can also reduce chances of NCD infections. Human beings can also spread the disease from one farm to another. This happens though contaminated hands, shoes and clothes.

Many farmers take pride in their commercial poultry business and it forms the first stop for any Tom, Jack and Harry visiting their farms. When such visitors are from a contaminated farm get in contact to your healthy birds, NCD can be spread. In addition, vehicles entering your farm must have their wheels and undercarriage disinfected at the gate.

Your farmhands in the poultry unit need to wear clean clothes while on the farm; they should not use the street clothes in the poultry unit. In other words bio-security measures on poultry farms will reduce chances of the disease flare up in your farm.

Unlike other viruses, the NCD virus can linger around in the environment for a while before dying; this period is even longer in cool environment. The disease can either affect the nervous or respiratory systems and will show clinical signs specific to the affected system. If it has affected the respiratory system, the birds will gasp for air, cough and sneeze.

When the nervous system is affected the birds will move in circles, twist their necks and will have wing and leg paralysis. Greenish watery diarrhea and swelling of the head may also occur. There is no effective treatment for NCD but birds that recover develop a long lasting immunity. There are several vaccines against NCD available in the market. Some are administered in drinking water, some as sprays or as drops.

The number of administration is determined by the virulence of the implicated strain and risk of exposure. The greatest challenge in initial vaccines was the loss of potency when it is handled at room temperature for over two hours, making it unsuitable for rural areas where this disease challenge is greatest. Recently the Kenya Veterinary Vaccine Institute developed a thermostable version of the vaccine available to farmers at an affordable cost.

Different hatcheries and manufacturers have their schedule for NCD vaccinations; enquire for this information when sourcing for your foundation stock.

The Effects of Avian Flu(bird flu) on Poultry Sales/humans/birds and its treatment/precautions

The outbreak of any epidemic or the widespread of any disease leads to an inevitable slump in the market. Be the sale in direct or indirect relation to it, the market is affected greatly in any case. So, you can very well analyze the affect on the market if the sale is directly proportional to the epidemic. The product here is directly proportional to the epidemic so you can very well imagine the severe effect.

The greatest risk factor for Bird Flu, seems to be contact with sick birds or with surfaces contaminated by their feathers, saliva or droppings. The World Health Organization (WHO) has confirmed a handful of cases of limited human-to-human transmission of bird flu. But unless the virus begins to spread more easily among people, infected birds or material present the greatest hazard. Migratory waterfowl and ducks in particular, carry the viruses that cause bird flu. Often unaffected themselves, the host birds can spread the infection to susceptible species, especially domesticated chickens, turkeys and geese, resulting in severe epidemics that sicken and kill large numbers of birds – sometimes in a single day.

Avian viruses generally don’t affect humans, but in 1997, an outbreak of bird flu in Hong Kong infected 18 people, six of whom died. Since then, human cases of bird flu have been reported in the Netherlands, Canada and throughout Asia. Most were traced to contact with infected poultry or surfaces contaminated by sick birds.

BBC news said that: The \”intense interest\” in the risk of a UK bird flu outbreak could seriously damage chicken and poultry sales, the National Farmers’ Union have warned. This was the headline of an article in the BBC news front page. David Salisbury, head of immunization at the Department of Health, said an assumption was being made that one in four people would be affected by any such outbreak \”The risk is very real, we’re very aware of what’s happening in south-east Asia and are monitoring very carefully the spread of disease amongst birds,\” he told BBC News.

Another date the BBC news front page said: Poultry producers in Wales say their businesses are at risk following a ban on bird sales and shows to lessen the potential spread of avian flu. \”We go to the sales to keep the cash flow going, but this ban has taken 80% of our market away\”. Said the Poultry producer Chris Taylor, which very clearly states the condition of poultry sales due to the ban levied on it.

Hence, the above-mentioned reports very well sum up how the sales have been affected in case of poultry due to this bird flu. This viral infection has been the cause of so many problems. The H5N1 virus currently infecting birds in this avian flu have caused human illness and death is resistant to amantadine and rimantadine, two antiviral medications commonly used for influenza. Two other antiviral medications, oseltamavir and zanamavir, may treat flu caused by the H5N1 virus. Tamiflu is the most effective medicine against this perilous disease. And remember Tamiflu is most effective if treatment is started within 48 hours of symptom onset. So Don’t Loose Time Buy Tamiflu.

What Are the Poultry Diseases/causes/types/reasons and its effect on human and other species

There can be combinational issue of the disease which will be intruded at intervals the body of an organism. There will be both external and internal factors that are subjected to the body. It can be non-infectious and infectious for health. But the body is protected with number of factors that are actually caused by the nutrition and different intrusions. This is often a concept that is appropriate for pretty much all the organisms of the Earth. So, during this respect poultry diseases will be mentioned as poultry could be a increasing concept in terms of farming. This can be currently a booming division in India and every one over the world. So, it’s true that if we tend to have to create this division survive then we tend to should live with it and attempt to develop it in the fullest extent. So, correct housing and organization is needed for shielding the birds for saving them from all the parasitic and non parasitic diseases, this business can flourish well.

The analysis says that there was high humanity rate with the shortage of possible nutrition, misconduct and looking after the clean environment. t.
Can you picture that the mortality rate has enlarged in range at least up to ninety% when the egg hatched in their proper ratio?

During this case the main factor is that the poultry diseases. Here the necessity of the action with correct diagnosis is often needed so that one will simply gage the core reason of every of the diseases. Here are different business productions that are generally affected with various reasons that are literally resulting in a great loss in the production. The flocks are exaggerated with diseases like Infectious bronchitis, Newcastle Disease, Mareks Disease, Avian Influenza and many more. Depending on the country this disease occurs.

There has been range of studies that are literally suggesting the various reason for the humanity rate. You’ll take a look at a number of the prevention of the causes of those diseases that are literally reduced it with the correct care. We tend to all recognize that avoidance is better than cure therefore before the disease happens and get transmitted among various communities of each human and different zoological species. Thus you have got to stay the prediction of the entire concept that is a lot of necessary than managing one. The productivity will increase with time with all the simple techniques and possible look after it.

Once the diseases get in to the body of the organism it spreads in to others rapidly. Thus, it is better to check the humanity rate with number of ways that are taken take care of the right avoidance and care. The poultry diseases multiply and find transmitted rapidly. It can be a direct transmission or an indirect transmission. The main carriers are the water, soil and different food, etc. When these organisms are mating for the increase of production there will be a doable likelihood of raising the infection.

There are some potential signs and symptoms which are literally a likelihood of detection in conditions of the diseases. Birds are having the erect tail, drop between the legs, and pale color in the eyes. These are treated as the main reason for the diseases. This is true that injury, soil and different diseases will be a attainable reason for the diseases.

Causes of different types of stress in chickens-how to manage it?

For many of you, it won’t be making much sense that chickens do get stressed – I mean, weren’t humans enough to get stressed that even poultry does? However, if we think beyond what we see, even chickens have their own world like us – they are stressed lives like we do, I know I am being little emotional here but the fact remains true. Indeed, they won’t be having workplace stress or family stress but other undesirable factors make them unhappy.

This excerpt is all about the kinds of stress the chickens face. How can you manage it? Basically the identification and solution, all would be your way.

Types of stress:

Well, it’s not wrong to say that some of the stress types that are identified within poultry seems much more common to humans.

Fear – many fear that they would be chased and actually stab to death. Indeed this is the nature of any living being – the feeling of insecurity causes severe tension.Some times they get stressed after being an attempt by predator to eat them.

Social stress – many times birds hate it when their pecking order is changed – or, maybe when their friends are sent to some other coop. Similarly, if a rooster which was previously attached to one chicken, if goes to any other, tension takes birth among all. The addition of more than required chickens within a certain place also leads to stressed situation which may effects poultry health.

Climatic stress – you must be having an idea that chickens are very sensitive to heat – you must keep a check on identifying the signs of heat stress when the sun is around. Similarly, too chilled winters even spoil the mood of the birds.

Environmental stress – chickens are really moody – they just want things to be there way; even a little change can make them unhappy. Too much light, less ventilation and dirt is the major factor that causes stress amongst the birds.

Nutritional stress – change in diet, short of food, less number of water containers also upset them.

Physiological stress – many times process of egg laying, sexual maturity,egg binding and mating creates stress among-st the fellows.

Causes of stress:

Anything that goes beyond the wish of the chicken makes her unhappy – she tends to think all the bad things and remains sad for days. For example, if the coop as been changed or a chicken has been introduced to new friends, she would feel bad about it. Chickens are not good change acceptors. Similarly, many even hate when the roosters are changed, or their handsome roosters I walk away with another chick, they feel jealous. Likewise, change in diet, even change in the grains cause them bad mood.

Signs of stress:

The most common stress signs include;

  • Loss of appetite
  • Sluggish attitude
  • Lethargy
  • Aggression and fights
  • Less egg production
  • Shedding of feathers
  • Loss of weight

Different diseases and stressful conditions may be responsible for the mortality in today’s poultry industry– make sure; you look after your chicken on the right time so that you can overcome losses.

stressed in chickens
Prevention and treatment:
  • Keep your chickens clean and tidy – also make sure that the coop is clean. Timely change the flooring and even the coop.
  • Do not add more and more chickens if there is less space inside the coop.
  • If the flock size is increasing, increase the number of food equipment.
  • During severe heat, try to keep some frozen water gallons or ice packets near the chickens to protect them from heat– they would love it.
  • During winters you must place or bulbs so that they can feel warm.
  • Make sure you keep on getting the chickens vaccinated on time – this would help them in avoiding both viral and bacterial infections. The entire flock would remain healthy and safe.
  • If you are intending to change the diet, make sure you do it wisely. You can start giving new grains and old grains together. Make them habitual and eventually stop giving the old ones, they won’t mind.

Obviously you cannot talk to the chickens and teach them the ways of stress management. Normally, a bird can handle a certain level of stress easily and also it depends upon type of breed you have, but too much can be really dangerous, even cost lives.